Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2018, Page: 53-59
The Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the Levels of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and C-Reactive Proteinin HIV Infected Subjects in Nigeria
Faustina Nkechi Osuji, Laboratory Department, Immaculate Heart Specialist Hospital, Nkpor-Agu, Nigeria
Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria
Nkeiruka Rose Ukaibe, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria
Joseph Ebere Ahaneku, Department of Chemical Pathology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria
Received: May 26, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 25, 2018;       Published: Jan. 17, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20180306.12      View  102      Downloads  21
Abstract
The study determined the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the levels of Superoxide dismutase, catalase and C-reactive protein HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria. A total of 50 HIV infected subjects aged 20-69 (39±10) years and 50 HIV seronegative control participantsaged 21-56 (35±10) years were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected at 3 different points: before initiation of HAART, 6 months and 12 months into HAART. The serum levels of C - reactive protein (CRP), catalase, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), CD4 + T cells and viral load counts were measured in these subjects before HAART initiation and at 6 and 12 months after HAART intake. Standard laboratory methods were used in the analysis of these parameters. The results showed that CRP was significantly increased in HIV infected subjects before commencement of HAART and remained significantly increased after 12 months intake of HAART compared to control participants (P<0.01)respectively. SOD, and CD4 were significantly lower before HAART initiation and after 12 months intake of HAART compared to control participants (P<0.01) respectively. Viral load was significantly reduced after 12 months intake of HAART. There was a negative correlation between the viral load and SOD (r=-0.41, P<0.01) and catalase (r=-0.47, P<0.01) and a positive correlation between the viral load and CRP (r=0.48, P<0.01) before HAART initiation. After 12 months of HAART catalase showed a significant negative correlation with viral load (r=-0.37, P<0.05) while CRP showed a positive correlation with viral load (r=0.33, P<0.05). The study shows a persistently elevated CRP and reduced SOD and catalase after 12 months intake of HAART. These biomarkers support a central role of inflammation and oxidative stress in HIV pathogenesis.
Keywords
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV, Catalase, SOD, C - Reactive Protein
To cite this article
Faustina Nkechi Osuji, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Nkeiruka Rose Ukaibe, Joseph Ebere Ahaneku, The Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the Levels of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and C-Reactive Proteinin HIV Infected Subjects in Nigeria, American Journal of Laboratory Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2018, pp. 53-59. doi: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20180306.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
De Pablo-Bernal RS, Ruiz-Mateos E, Rosado. TNF-alpha levels in HIV-infected patients after long term suppressive cART persists as high as in elderly HIV-uninfected subjects. J antimicroChemother 2014; 69: 3041-6.
[2]
Feldman JG, Goldwasser P, Holman S, De Hovitz J, Minkoff H. C-Reactive protein is an independent predictor of mortality in women with Human Immunodeficiency virus infection. J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr2003; 32(2):210-214.
[3]
Ledwuba L, Tavel JA, Khabo P. Pre ART levels of inflammation and coagulation markers are strong predictors of death in South African cohort with advanced HIV disease. PLoSOne 2012; 7 e24243.
[4]
McDonald B, Moyo S, Gabaitiri L, Gaseitsiwe S, Bussmann H, Koethe JR et al. Persistently elevated serum IL-6 predicts mortality among adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Botswana: results from a clinical trial. AIDS Res Hum Terovirus2013; 29: 993-9.
[5]
Lau B, Sharett AR, Kingslev LA, Post W, Palella FJ, Visscher B, Gange SJ. C-Reactive protein is a marker for human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006; 166(1): 64-70.
[6]
Ivon G, Rosario G, vianka C, Jorge P. oxidant/antioxidant status in subjects with Human Immunodeficiency virus infection in different clinical conditions. Biomedicine and Aging Pathology 2014; 4(3): 235-242.
[7]
Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Deuchant E, Couchouron A, Constance J, Sergeant C, Simonoff M, Pellegrin JL, Leng B, Conri C, Clerc M. The enzymatic antioxidant system in blood and glutathione status in HIV infected patients: effects of supplementation with selenium or β-caroten. American Journal of Clinical nutrition 1996; 64(1): 101-107.
[8]
Adeoti MF, Camara GM, Monteomo GF, Kaffi G, Kola I, Djaman AJ, Dosso M. Evaluation of oxidant and enzymatic subjects with Human immunodeficiency virus-1. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2016; 3(11): 617-621.
[9]
Ibeh BO, Habu JB, Eze SC. Discordant levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase observed in HAART naive and experienced HIV patients in South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Infectious Disease and Therapeutics 2013; 1: 8-16.
[10]
Aquaro S, Scopelliti F, Polliciti M, Perno CF. Oxidative stress and HIv infection: Target pathways for novel therapies? Future HIV therapy 2008: 2(4): 327-338.
[11]
Drain PK, Kupka R, Mugusi F, Fawzi WW. Micronutrients in HIV-positive persons receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J ClinNutr 2007; 85(2): 333-45.
[12]
Selmen S, Berrueta L. Immune modulators of HIV infection: Roleof reactive oxygen species. J Clin Cell Immunol 2012; 3: 121.
[13]
Ivanov A, Valuev-Elliston VT, Ivanova ON, Kochetkov SN, Starodubova ES, Birke B, Isaguliants MG. Oxidative Stress during HIV infection: mechanisms and consequences. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016: 8910396.
[14]
Jaruga P, Jaruga B, Gackowski D, Olezak A, Alota W, Pawlowska M, Olinski R. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins prevents oxidative modification of DNA in lymphocytes of HIV infected patients. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2002; 32(5): 414-420.
[15]
Stephenson CB, Marquis GS, Douglas SD, Kruzich LA, Wilson CM. Glutathione peroxidase and selenium status in HIV positive and HIV negative adolescent and young adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 5(1) 173-178.
[16]
Osuji FN, Onyenekwe CC, Ifeanyichukwu MO, Ahaneku JE, Ezeani M, Ezeugwunne IP. Impact of HIV and mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infections on antioxidant status in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2013; 12(5): 496-504.
[17]
Pasupathi P, Ramachandran T, Sindhu PJ, Saravanan G, Bakthavathsalan G. Enhanced oxidative stress markers and antioxidant imbalance in HIV infection and AIDS patients. Journal of Scientific Research 2009; 1(2): 370-380.
[18]
Lizette GD, Hernandez RG, Avila JP. Oxidative stress associated to disease progression and toxicity during antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Virology and Microbiology 2013(2013): 1-15.
[19]
Osuji FN, Onyenekwe CC, Ifeanyichukwu M, Ahaneku JB, Ezeani M, Ezeugwunne IF. Antioxidant activity in HIV and malaria co-infected subjects in Anambra State Southeastern Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine2012; 412-420.
[20]
Elechi-Amadi KN and Briggs ON. Superoxide dismutase and cortisol levels in HIV-1 patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2018; 5(9): 383-386.
[21]
Lizette GV, Rosario GH. Antioxidants status in human immunodeficiency virus infections in different clinical conditions. In: HIV/AIDS Oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants. Academic Press London, United Kingdom 2018. Pg 3-15 http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809853-0.00001-8.
[22]
vanRossum AM, Scherpbier HJ, van Loochem EG, Pakker NG, Slieker WA, Wolthers KC et al. Therapeutic immune reconstitution in HIV-1 infected children is independent of their age and pre-treatment immune status. AIDS 2001; 15(17): 2267-75.
[23]
Tasca KI, Caleffi JT, Correa CR, Gatto M, Tavares FC, Camargo CC et al. Antiretroviral therapy initiation alters the redox system of asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: a longitudinal study. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017; 2017: 9834803.
[24]
Noursadeghi M, Miller RF. Clinical values of C-Reactive protein measurement in HIV positive patients. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Disease and AIDS 2005; 16(6): 438-441.
[25]
Shapiro AE, Hong T, Govere S, Thulare H, Moosa MY, Dorasamy A et al. C-reactive protein as a screening test for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis prior to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS; 32(13): 1811-1820.
[26]
Nagesh W and Kala Yadhav ML. C-reactive protein as an early marker of opportunistic infections in HIV. DOI: 10.4172/2155-6113-C1-017.
Browse journals by subject