American Journal of Laboratory Medicine

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Evaluation of the Medical Laboratory Equipment Standardization and Harmonization Program on Availability of Reagents and Controls at Council Hospitals

This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Medical Laboratory Equipment Standardization and Harmonization Program on the availability of reagents and controls at council hospitals in Arusha, Tanzania. Specifically, the study assessed the stakeholders’ participation in the program based on their knowledge and accessibility of the program guidelines, the availability of standardized laboratory equipment at the council hospital laboratories also assessed changes in the availability of the reagents and controls for the standardized equipment at the council hospitals’ laboratories. Purposive sampling and Simple random sampling were used to obtain the sample size for the study. The study randomly sampled 64 respondents from district hospitals where 5 District Medical Officers, 19 Laboratory Assistants, 3 Laboratory Scientists, 2 Medical Officer In charge, and 28 Laboratory Technologists were enrolled, also staff from the council health management team (CHMT) whereas 7 District Laboratory Technologist were also enrolled in the study. Quantitative data were collected using Questionnaire tools. Analysis of data was done using SPSS software to obtain descriptive information between different variables. Study findings revealed that there was inadequate knowledge among key stakeholders implementing the program as 51.5% Low; 43.75% moderate; and 4.6% High levels of knowledge. Stakeholder’s accessibility to the program Guideline was 15.60%, Council Hospital Accessibility to Standardized Laboratory Equipment was 90.60%, Accessibility and Affordability of Laboratory Reagents and Controls was 79.70%, and thus an overall increase in the availability of Laboratory Reagents and Controls at the Council Hospitals was 65.60%. The study further revealed that the standardization program had a positive impact on the availability of reagents and control at Council hospitals as participants revealed an increase in the availability of reagents in their laboratories, but for more improvement of the program, it recommended that dissemination of the Standardization Guideline to all key stakeholders as well as engaging them in the implementation so as to improve ownership and efficiency of the program. The study also recommends to the government to make policies and regulations that are in line with the standardized program as well as ensure standardization program reaches all health facilities, including private and faith-based organizations with the aim of improving overall laboratory services across the country.

Evaluation, Standardization and Harmonization, Laboratory Equipment, Analyzer and Reagents and Controls

APA Style

Louis Nicas. (2023). Evaluation of the Medical Laboratory Equipment Standardization and Harmonization Program on Availability of Reagents and Controls at Council Hospitals. American Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 8(3), 35-50.

ACS Style

Louis Nicas. Evaluation of the Medical Laboratory Equipment Standardization and Harmonization Program on Availability of Reagents and Controls at Council Hospitals. Am. J. Lab. Med. 2023, 8(3), 35-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20230803.12

AMA Style

Louis Nicas. Evaluation of the Medical Laboratory Equipment Standardization and Harmonization Program on Availability of Reagents and Controls at Council Hospitals. Am J Lab Med. 2023;8(3):35-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20230803.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Birx, D., de Souza, M., & Nkengasong, J. N. (2009). Laboratory challenges in the scaling up of HIV, TB, and malaria programs: The interaction of health and laboratory systems, clinical research, and service delivery. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 131 (6), 849–851.
2. Derua, Y. A., Ishengoma, D. R. S., Tenu, F., Massaga, J. J., Mboera, L. E. G., & Magesa, S. M. (2011). Users’ and health service providers’ perception on quality of laboratory malaria diagnosis in Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 10, 1–7.
3. Galliers, R. D., & Land, F. F. (1987). Choosing appropriate information systems research methodologies: A revised taxonomy. Communications of the ACM, 30 (11), 901–902. of the ACM%5Cn
4. H. A., M. (2017). Standardization and harmonization in laboratory medicine. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 32 (1), S52–S53.
5. Ii, P., & Iii, P. (2012). Laboratory services and medical supplies Part I: Policy and economic issues Part II: Pharmaceutical management Part III: Management support systems Planning and administration.
6. Ishengoma, D. S., Kamugisha, M. L., Rutta, A. S. M., Kagaruki, G. B., Kilale, A. M., Kahwa, A., Kamugisha, E., Baraka, V., Mandara, C. I., Materu, G. S., Massaga, J. J., Magesa, S. M., Lemnge, M. M., & Mboera, L. E. G. (2017). Performance of health laboratories in provision of HIV diagnostic and supportive services in selected districts of Tanzania. BMC Health Services Research, 17 (1), 1–9.
7. Justman, J. E., Koblavi-Deme, S., Tanuri, A., Goldberg, A., Gonzalez, L. F., & Gwynn, C. R. (2009). Developing laboratory systems and infrastructure for HIV scale-up: A tool for health systems strengthening in resource-limited settings. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 52 (SUPPL. 1), 30–33.
8. Kothari C. R. (2004) Research Methodology. Methods and Techniques. New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers.
9. Massambu, C., & Mwangi, C. (2009a). The tanzania experience: Clinical laboratory testing harmonization and equipment standardization at different levels of a tiered health laboratory system. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 131 (6), 861–866.
10. Peter, T. F., Shimada, Y., Freeman, R. R., Ncube, B. N., Khine, A. A., & Murtagh, M. M. (2009b). The need for standardization in laboratory networks. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 131 (6), 867–874.
11. Plebani, M., Astion, M. L., Barth, J. H., Chen, W., de Oliveira Galoro, C. A., Escuer, M. I., Ivanov, A., Miller, W. G., Petinos, P., Sciacovelli, L., Shcolnik, W., Simundic, A. M., & Sumarac, Z. (2014). Harmonization of quality indicators in laboratory medicine. A preliminary consensus. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 52 (7), 951–958.
12. SMLEG, (2018). Standard Medical Laboratory Equipment Guideline (SMLEG) Ministry of Health Community development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC). Tanzania.
13. Ughweroghene Kingston Omo-Emmanuel1*, Ochei Kingsley Chinedum2, Obeagu Emmanuel I.3, Odo Michael 2 and Olubunmi Negedu-Momoh2. Volume 3, Issue 1 -2017 Evaluation of Laboratory Logistics Management Information System in HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Health Facilities in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
14. USAID, 2010. Laboratory Standardization: Lessons Learned and Practical Approaches. DELIVER PROJECT; USAID; laboratory standardization.
15. Vesper, H. W., Myers, G. L., & Miller, W. G. (2016). Current practices and challenges in the standardization and harmonization of clinical laboratory tests. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104, 907S-912S.
16. Williams, J., Umaru, F., Edgil, D., & Kuritsky, J. (2016). Progress in harmonizing tiered HIV laboratory systems: Challenges and opportunities in 8 African countries. Global Health Science and Practice, 4 (3), 467–480.
17. Zomboko, F. E., Tripathi, S. K., & Kamuzora, F. K. (2012). Challenges in Procurement and Use of Donated Medical-Equipments: Study of a Selected Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 4 (4), 41–48.